Antenna Field (18ST386)
The Antenna Field site (18ST386) is located on the Jesuit plantation of St. Inigoes in St. Mary's County,
Maryland. In the 1980s, planned construction at the Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Activity (NESEA)
(today Patuxent River Naval Air Station Webster Field Annex) required archaeological survey of this and
adjacent fields. The survey resulted in part in the identification of two colonial domestic sites at
Antenna Field: 18ST386 and 18ST541. King and Pogue (1985) described the former as a late-17th century
site that may have been occupied by indentured servants or tenant farmers from ca. 1660 to 1690. The site's
artifact assemblage and its location on poor soil suggest that the site was not the residence of the plantation's
Jesuit owners. As a servant or tenant occupation, the Antenna Field site can potentially reveal the material
conditions of life for a poorly understood stratum of colonial society.
St. Inigoes Manor was first acquired by the Jesuits in 1636, when Richard Gerard sold the property to
Father Thomas Copley. This portion of the property remained in the possession of the Jesuits until 1942,
when they sold the land to the United States Navy; the Jesuits retained ownership of the balance until 2008.
The manor's earliest colonial occupation appears to have been about 1636 at the Old Chapel Field site (18ST233).
At about the time Old Chapel Field was abandoned (ca. 1660), the Antenna Field was occupied, although not,
as noted earlier, by the Jesuit owners.
The site was occupied during a time in Maryland when planters could focus on building wealth through
tobacco cultivation. St. Inigoes Manor functioned as a kind of home plantation for the Jesuits' other
manors located throughout the colony and the residents of the Antenna Field site very likely helped produce
tobacco and food crops fpr the mission effort.
In 1982, Michael A. Smolek of the Maryland Historical Trust's Southern Maryland Regional Center excavated
71 shovel test pits in the field containing the Antenna Field site.
In April 1985, archaeologists Julia A. King and Dennis J. Pogue conducted a controlled surface collection
of the Antenna Field site in advance of Navy construction. The field containing the site was plowed and then
disked before being divided into 375 10-by-10 foot squares. Typically, surface collection proceeds after a heavy
rainfall exposes artifacts on the ground's surface but that spring was unusually dry (King and Pogue 1985:5).
This technique was applied to all areas of the field excepting areas containing existing antennas, a ravine,
and soil unsuitable for plowing.
A total of 1,541 artifacts from the Antenna Field site are found in the database from 446 contexts. These artifacts include ceramics,
tobacco pipes, bottle glass, architectural artifacts, metal, lithics, and faunal remains. Oyster shell forms the largest category
of material with 90 fragments (the majority of these fragments were counted and discared in the field).
The artifacts recovered from 18ST386 corroborate the established date range, with most of the ceramic and tobacco
pipes collected dating to ca. 1660-1690. Earthenwares dominate the ceramic assemblage (n=26). Archaeologists did
not recover any ceramic that could be firmly dated to pre-1650 or the 18th century. The 118 white clay and five red
clay tobacco pipe fragments support the site's 17th-century occupation date; the Binford date for the 68 measurable
white pipe stems is 1663, while the date suggested by the Harrington histogram is 1660-1690.
Two tobacco pipe stems recovered from 18ST386 contained identifiable maker's marks. These stems were marked 'LE'
and 'WIL EVANS,' respectively. These pipe stems have been attributed to two Bristol pipemakers. The first maker's
mark is attributed to Llewellin Evans, who worked from 1661 to 1686; research by Katherine Cavallo (2004), however,
has suggested that LE pipes were not arriving in the nearby Patuxent drainage until ca. 1670 and the same could be
true for the Potomac. The second pipe was made by one of two William Evanses practicing between the years 1660 and 1696.
Additional artifacts recovered from 18ST386 include four bottle glass fragments, 1 iron buckle fragment, 1 iron
strap fragment, 70 pieces of brick, 6 window glass fragments, 6 wrought nails, 4 unidentified nails, and 14 bone
fragments. The brick, window glass, and nails were recovered from contexts concentrated within the site boundaries;
combined, they indicate the presence of a 17th-century domestic structure. A possible kitchen refuse area was identified
north of the architectural concentration, where King and Pogue found a high concentration of shell and domestic materials.
Three white clay tobacco pipe stem fragments were recovered from a 10-by-10 foot surface collection unit well beyond
the site's boundaries with no other associated colonial artifacts. The three pipe stem fragments had unusually
small bore diameters for 17th-century pipes, each recorded at 5/64-inches. Two of the three fragments contained
scratched or etched writing; text added long after the pipes' manufacture and not to be confused with a maker's mark.
One stem was etched "D.R.," initials which have not yet been linked with certainty to any individual. The second pipe
stem fragment was etched, "JOHN LEWIS," with the accompanying date of "1666." Archival research has revealed that,
by 1666, a planter and house-holder named John Lewis was residing on St. George's Manor, a nearby plantation also
owned by the Jesuits (King and Pogue 1987:103). The third pipe stem was unmarked.
Ceramics include 71 fragments, 16 of which date to the late 18th and 19th centuries. Of the remaining 55 fragments, the
majority (n=30) include unidentified coarse earthenwares. Diagnostic ceramic types include North Devon sgraffito (n=3),
North Devon gravel-tempered (n=4), Staffordshire slipware (n=3), Buckley-like earthenware (n=8), tin-glazed earthenware (n=2),
Rhenish brown stoneware (n=1), English brown stoneware (n=1), and white salt-glazed stoneware (n=1).
The distribution of ware types suggest an occupation date range of ca. 1660-1695 with some disturbance in the early and later 18th
Architectural artidacts include 109 red brick fragments, 36 iron nails, 31 window glass fragments, and a single fragment each
of mortar and daub. No yellow brick, roof or floor tile, fireplace tile, or window lead fragments were recovered. Other
artifacts include an iron buckle, lithic artifacts, and two native ceramic fragments, and three iron strap fragments.
Cavallo, Katherine D. 2004. An Analysis of Marked and Decorated White Clay Tobacco Pipes from the
Lower Patuxent Drainage. St. Mary's Project, St. Mary's College of Maryland, St. Mary's City. Available online in "A Comparative
Archaeological Study of Colonial Chesapeake Culture" (www.chesapeakearchaeology.org/Interpretations/CavalloPaper.cfm).
King, Julia A, and Dennis J Pogue. 1985. Archaeological
Investigations at the "Antenna Field," St. Inigoes, Maryland. Prepared for Naval Electronic Systems Engineering Activity,
St. Inigoes, MD. Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum, St. Leonard, MD. Manuscript on file, St. Mary's College of Maryland.
King, Julia A, and Dennis J Pogue. 1987. An Unusual Pipe Stem Find from St. Inigoes Manor,
Maryland. Historical Archaeology 21(1):102-104.
The Antenna Field collection is owned by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Naval District
Washington and curated by the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory. For more information
about the collection and collection access, contact Sara Rivers-Cofield, Federal Collections Manager,
at 410-586-8589 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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